209- bc- the hunnus/or huns/, the ancestors of mongols and turkic peoples/yakuts, tuvans, altains, kyrgyzs and kazaks/ establish their first state.
402-nirun state of mongol speaking tribes is established by shelun, the son of the leader of baruungar mongols, who unifies both baruun gar and zuun gar mongols. the capital of the state is located in hangai mountains.
552-after defeating the nirun mongols, turkic peoples, the ancestors of yakuts, tuvans, altais and partially of kazaks establish their state.
744- uigurs rebell against turkics and expand their habitat from lake balkash to lake baykal , with capital in kara balgas found in today’s huvsgul aymag.
745-uigur, the shaman believers found their empire in today’s mongolia;
840-the kyrgyzs from siberia’s yenisei,drive the uighurs west to the tarim basin.
907-after the collapse of the tang dynasty, the chinese rulers retreat south and the kidans, a proto-mongolianpeople establish their state.
925- the mongol- speaking kitans drive away the kyrgizs and establish the liao dynasty on land to west from altai mountains and to south from herlen river.
947-kidan mongols adopt chinese characters for their literature;
1115-the zurchidsor zurchens( proto- manchus) overrun the kitan-the proto-mongols and found the jin dynasty;
1124-the kitans are driven to southwest.
1135-mongols led by habul khan win 12-year war againstthe northern china; the kitans defeat the seljuks and establish the kara-kitai state.
1162. 5. 31-temuujin/future great chingis khaan/ is born in family of esukhei, the unofficial khaan of mongolian state in the basin of onon river in today’s north-eastern mongolia;
1170 -esukhei, a mongol warrior and father of chingis khaan dies after being cowardly poisoned by tatar tribesmen, leaving behind temuujin/9 year-old/, hasar/7/, hachun/5/, temuge/3/ and temulen, the daughter from his 1st wife, oelun and another 2 sons from sochigel, his 2nd wife-begter and belgutei; muhulai, one of future top generals of chingis khaan is born in onon river basin;
1172-temujin makes friendship with jamukha.
1176-subedei, one of chinggis khaan’s top generals, is born in habal’s family of uryankhai tribe;
1177-temujin meets borchy, his life-time friend and one of his best generals in future.
1179-borte isabducted by the merged/merkid/this leads to a military campaign against the merkits, by the combined forces of toghrul, temujin and temujin’s friend, jamukha. jamukha was another vassal of toghrul. the merkit tribe is defeated and temuujin liberates borte, his wife; zuchi, his oldest son is born; temuujin and jamukha spend the winter camp together.
1182- jamukha breaks his friendship with temuujin.
1183-tsagadai, the chingis khaan’s 2nd son is born.
1186-ogodei, his 3rd son is born.
1189-on 5.05-temuujin is given the title of chingis khaan at the hurildai/assembly/ of several mongol tribes held on banks ofhokh nuur lakeand the mongol state is re-established-chingis khaan battles.
1190-temujin battles jamukha.
1193-tului, the khaan’s youngest son is born.
1198-a war breaks out between tatar tribe and zurchens who occupied 1/3 of china and declared today’s beijing as capital. zurchens asks help from tooril and temujin/chingis/. in order to take the revenge for his father’s death, temujin allies with zurchens. on banks of uldz river in the north-eastern mongolia, the allied forces of zurchens of altan state, tooril khaan and chingis defeat tatars. toril receives the title “ong” and chingis gets “chaudhuri” from zurchens;
1197-ongkhaan of khereids, a mongol speaking tribe from the basins of tuul and orkhon rivers, submits to chingis khaan;
1199-the khaan battles naiman tribe;
1200-the khaan battles taichuuds on basin of onon river;
1202-chingiz destroyes tatar tribesmen as the revenge for his father’s death;jamukha is elected a khan by his followers, and is given the title gur-khan. jamukha builds up a coalition aganst temujin/chingis/; altan;
1203- allied forces of ong/toril/ khan of the krereids, his son sengum and jamukha, the former anda/close friend of chingis/ makes a surprise attack on chingis near a place called eleet. during the bloody batlle, ogodei, the 3rd son of chingis khaan and sengum, the son toril are injured. ong khan retreats for the treatment ofhis son. chingis takes a break too and he counts only 2600 of his men. the remnant forces of chingis khaan camp near halhiin gol river and to east from hingan mountains. in a few days, chingiz fights back with the surprise attack at night on ong’s forces stationed in tuul river area. after 3 days of heavy battles, chingis’s forces defeat the khereids. ong khan and sengum escape, but soon after ong khan is killed by a border patrol of naimans while attempting to join them. sengum dies afterwards near tenger montain. khereid state ceases the existance; then jamukha joins the naimans of tayan;
1204- naimans of tayan khan supported by jamukha, hatagins, saljuts, some honkhereids, the remnants of khereids and mergeds/or merkits/ of toktobukh, attack on chingis. the battle takes place first near orkhon river basin where naimans are defeated then continues in tamir river area. jamukha escapes the battle, but soon is betrayed by his men and delivered by his men to chingis khaan. jamukha is executed. the secret history describes how this happens upon jamukha’s own request, he is insistent that he be executed even when temujin offers renewal of their brotherhood. temujin accepted delivery of jamukha, but executes those who had betrayed him. people who betray others merit the harshest punishment according to temuchin, who could not trust unprincipled people who betrayed their master;chingis vins the naimans killing tayan/the naimans were in league with a multitude of other tribes, among them the mergeds, the jadiran under jamukha/; future guyug khaan, the oldest son of the great ogodei khaan is born and grows up in mongolia;
1206-first united mongol state is established at great hurildai held on banks of onon river . 45-year old chingis is confirmed as the great khaan. the decision to conquer the world is taken;
1207-the future batu khaan, the second son of zuchi/the oldest son of chingis khaan/ is born in orkhon valley and grows up in mongolia; chingis second time, attacks tanguts/hsi-hsia/; following the orders of the father, zuchy moves to northern direction to occupy tribes inthe basins of selenge and yenisey rivers; yenisey’s kyrgyzs admit mongol rule;
1208- chingis khaan settles in a golden palace; the khaan orders the young general subeedei to destroy naimans;
1209-mongols third time attack tanguts and defeat them; uigurs from eastern turkistan capitulate to mongols;future munkhe khaan is born; mongols defeat kyrgyzs of the yenisei, forcing them to flee south to the tien shan mountains; mongols campaign fourth time against the tanguts, who had established a chinese-style dynasty known as the xia/ located in today’s north-western china/, along the old silk roads;
1210-future guyug khaan is born;chingis khaan sentences his shaman. tev tenger to death; the khwarezmians defeat the qarakhitais; uigurs and mongols compose the national writings; mongols prepare for the war against altan state of zurchens;
1211-chingis khaan returns to mongolia from the defeated tangutstate; in march, chingis khaan prayes on the peak of burkhan haldun, the most sacred mountain of mongols asking help from the eternal sky; in the spring,departing from herlen river, chingis khaan commences the war against the zurchen state in the today’s north-eastern china; in august, the khaan is injured during a battle near datung city; mongol troops occupy northern chinese cities. mongol tribes are liberated from the yoke of altan state of zurchens; mutogoon, the most loved grand-son of chingis khaan killed during the battle for bamyan fortress in today’s afghanistan. mutogoon was the oldest son of tsagaadai/2nd son of chingis khaan/;
1212-mongol troops continue assaults on chinese lands; chingis khaan is injured 2nd time;
1213-mongol armies advance towards the southern china; tanguts aid the mongols in their assault altan kingdom of zurchens or zurchids, the ancestors of manchus;
1215-the mongols sack and burn jundu/today’s beijing /. chinese ruler surrenders to khaan; chingis khaan returns to the homeland; the future hubilai khaan is born; chingis khaan acquiresyeh-lu chu’tsai, a chinese of mongol origin, as one of his closest advisers. yeh-lu chu’tsai was descended from mongols who, in the tenth and eleventh centuries had entered the service of the liao state, which came into existence during the ninth century as an offspring of a culture which originated as a result of contacts between mongol pastoralists and chinese farmers. soon the liao began to embark on military conquest, and before long they had established a state that encompassed the steppe area between manchuria and t’ien-shan mountains. the liao gradually became sinicized, as could be expected. yeh-lu was not a barbarian by any means; he was a supremely learned man of elevated culture, an academician with all the highest chinese academic credentials, but as the divorce between religion and science had not yet taken place, he was also a shaman, a healer, herbalist, and astrologer. he also worked as a diviner specializing in reading sheep’s shoulder blades to predict the future and determine the rightfulness of every mongol campaign. mongol campaigns he worked successfully with medical herbs to minimize the spread of epidemics after the destructions of the war. the relationship, which was actually a profound spiritual bond, between chingis khan and yeh-lu chu’tsai lasted for the rest of chingis khan’s life;
1217- general mukhulai receives the orderto complete the occupation of china; borohul,a lost boy/the future top general /is adopted by oelun, the mother of chingis khaan;
1218-mongols occupy eastern turkistan/today’s xinjiang/;
1219- khorezm’s shah of seljuks slaughters a big mongol caravanof merchants which is sent to set up busines in islamic lands at otrar, in the far west of modern kazakstan/ in transoxiana.khorezm lay south of the aral sea in the lower reaches of the amudarya river . the area between syrdarya and amudarya was called sogdiana by local people. arabian sources called it movarennahr.whole delegation made of both mongols and moslems is killed. when the news of this massacre reaches, chingis khaan is shoked by the news and comes to undescribable condition of rage. he goes to the summit of a hill and turns his face towards the burkhan haldun mountain and prays for 3 days saying “i am not the author of this great trouble, grant me strenth to exact vengeance; mongols declare a war and destroy khara-khitan;
1219-leading his 200000 strong cavalry, chingis along with his beauty queen, hulan and their son, hulgen and daughter, guluge, departs from altai mountains and crosses the jaxartes river ( syr darya ). the death of hulan, the queen on the road, saddens greatly the khaan’s soul; chingis strikes first time khwarezm, capturing transoxiana; otrar-jalal al-din defeats mongol forces on several occasions during the war of 1219-
1221-after suffering a defeat by an army personally led by chingis khan, however, jalal al-din is forced to flee;
1220-mongols occupy otrar/in today’s southern kazakstan/, bukhara, samarkand and northern persia; kharhorin is declared as the capital of mongolian empire;
1221- chingis khaan occupies khorassan-mongolian expeditionary armies led by generals zebe and subedei makes the most impressive raid ever known in military history around the caspian sea and into russia before returning to chingis’ main army;
1222-the khaan arrives from kabul to samarkand; the chinese taoist monk chang- chun visits chingis khan and extensively discusses philosophical matters with him;
1223-general mukhulai dies in northern and his son takes his command; armies led by zebe and subeedei reach krimea and defeatpolovians; mongolsdefeat a russian of 80000 in the famous the battle of kalka river ; general subedei returns home after annihilating a large georgian army. generalzebe dies soon afterthis campaign;
1224- chingis khaan meets his sons in central asia and makes analisis of conducted campaigns; chingis khaan distributes the occupied euroasian lands among his sons: zuchi (western part), ogodei (southern siberia and western mongolia), tsagaaday (transoxania and kara-khitai) and tolui (the traditional mongol lands);
1925-chingis khaan returns to mongolia and takes a decision to battle the tanguts who had just raided and killed hadaan, his childhood girlfriend and saver;
1226- zuchi, the oldest son the khaan dies in the steppe of today’s kazakstan during a hunting on wild asses leaving behind his 8 wives and 14 sons. his sons, ordu and batu takes the power. chingis khaan orders to build a mausoleum for his oldest son; chingis khaan departs for 4th time on war against xia-xia of tanguts, a people who control the area of silk road between tibet and china;the chingis khaan gets injured falling from a horse; jalal-ad -din returns to persia to revive the empire lost by his father, muhammad ‘ala al-din ii;
1227- mongols finally defeat the country of tanguts and their leader is killed; on august 18th, the great chingis khaan, the father of all mongols, ascends to heaven from sustained injury at the end of the campaign against tanguts; chinggis khaan is buried in a secret location which would remain a mystery for centuries; the greatest khaan is to be succeeded by ogodei who rules over chaghatay’s khanate in west turkestan, tolui’s original mongolia, batu’s blue horde in uzbekistan and turkmenistan, and orda’s white horde in kazakhstan and ogodei moves the capital to karakorum; they continued the siege of the capital of xi-xia even after his death. mongols destroy khara-hoto or ” black city”; the mongol forces sent against jalal-ad -dinare defeated at dameghan. another army that marches against jalal al-din scores a pyrrhic victory in the vicinity of isfahan , but is unable to follow up that success; hasar, the younger brother of the great khaan dies;
1229-in accordance with the wish of chingis khaan, the power is officially passed to ogodei, his 3rd sonat the great hurildai/asembly/ held on bank of herlen river. ogodei is 2nd great khaan of mongols. his 3 sons as well as his grand-sons attend the assemby;
1231-great khaan ogodei leads the war against china; mongol troops occupy altan state; mongols occupy adzerbaidjan-mongols attack corea-at great hurildai/assembly/ in harkhorin, the militaty expeditions to west are discussed;
1236-subedei, with chingis khaan’s grandson batu as the nominal leader, started the great 1236-1242 campaign with 150,000 men to subjugate all of . “the secret history of the mongols” describe all the princes of the blood as “succorers of subedei.” subedei determined that the campaign had to be started during winter. the mongols were accustomed to cold winters;
1237-batu khaan, a grandson of chingis khaan, launches aninvasion into kievan rus’ from his capital on the lower volga (at present-day kazan ). over the next three years the mongols destroy the major cities of kievan russ with the exceptions of novgorod and pskov . the regional princes are not deposed, but they are forced to send regular tribute to the mongol state, which became known as the empire of the golden horde;
1238- mongols defeat volga bolgars and penetrate into ryazan; batu khaan moves to russian steppes to join the rest of mongol forces; batu khaan starts 2ndtime the war againstrussia; mongols occupy chernigov;
1240-mongols occupy kiev ; writing of “the secret history of mongols” is completed in hodoo aral,the steppes that surrounds avarga, the first capital of mongolia. the spot is located in hentii aymag; batu khaan occupies russian principalities;
1241-in april,mongols army fight with fierce bravery and skills against several hungarian armies, which are all defeated,in consequent battles for pest at the sajo river, where army led by batu crossed during the evening of april 10, while subedei’s armycrosses the river elsewhere covered by the dark of night. mongol soldiers wiped out several large armies and killed more than 200 000 of the finest european warriors during some few weeks in 1241; on december 11, in the great ogodei khaan dies. the news of his death, forces mongols army which already stayed at gates to vienna , ride back to mongolia.becausewith the death, the position of great khaan was vacant, and the mongol had to return in order to face the new political situation, that is to elect a new khaan. it prevented all europe to be conquered by mongol army led by the generals batu and subeedei; turakhan, the queen, the widow of great khaan ogodei takes the charge of power untill next great khaan is elected;
1242 -tsagaadai, 2nd son of chingis khaan dies of a illness; batu khaan, the grandson of chingis khaan, establishes his “golden horde” at sarai on the lower volga;
1243-returning from western campaigns, batu khaan commences the creation of a state on land of kipchaks;
1245-john of plano carpini sent by pope, makes first contact with mongols;
1246-inspite of ogodei khaan’s last will-shirmun, his grand-son to be the next great khaan, guyug, 1st son of ogedei is crowned as great khaan at great hurildai held in harkhorin. guyug is the 3rd great khaan of mongols; first cencus of population is held in mongolia ;subedei, one ofchingis khaan’s greatest and most brilliant generals, died at the age of 70;
1248-guyug khaan dies in mongolia;
1251- on july 1st, great hurildai/great assembly/ is held in hodoo aral steppes of today’s eastern mongolia. the sons of batu, younger brothers of munkhe-hubilai, hulegu, mukha and arigbukh attend the hurildai. munkhe, 1st son of tolui/theyoungest son of chingis khaan/, is crowned as the great khaan; munkhe is the 4th great khaan on mongols;
1252-mongols battle arab countries;
1253-hulegu, 3rd son of tolui,finishes the occupation of irak;
1255 -general zebe dies; batu, the first khaan of the mongol golden horde in russia, dies; monkh khaan orders hubilaim the 2nd son of tolui, to build a city-palace nearby today’s dolnuur city;
1256 during the 2nd expedition, a mongol army led by hulegu, a grand son of chingis khaan completes the occupation of persia and seizes much of anatolia-hulegu khaan establishes ilkhanid king, domnominally subject to the great khan, hubilai, ruler of china and mongolia. kingdom lasts till 1335; following monkh khaan’s order, hubilai builds a city nearby today’s dolnuur city and names it kaipin;
1258-while at bagdad ,hulegu khaan gives his astronomer, nasir al-din permission to build an observatory. the town of maragha was the site chosen, and, under the superintendence of nasir al-din and four western asiatic astronomers who were associated with him, a handsome observatory was built, and furnished with “armillary spheres and astrolabes, and with a beautifully-executed terrestrial globe showing the five climates’;
1259- munkhe khaan who happened to be the last mongolian great khaan who resided in mongolia, dies- mongols troops stationed to attack egyptian mamluks are called back home;
1260-main forces of mongols attack china-arigbukh is elected as khaan in harkhorin in opposition to hubilai in china; breaking the tradition of election of mongol khaans, hubilai organizes an illegal hurilday in kaipin where he is elected as khaan by his supporters; mongols lose battle with egyptian mamluks-forces of arigbukh and alandar batlle in the eastern gobi against hubilai army led byhadan;
1261- hubilai and arigbokh, the sons of tului battle again each other;
1264-hubilai moves the mongol empire’scapital from harkhorin to haanbalig/”city of khaan”/ ordaidu/future beijing / in china-arigbukh, the younger brother of hubilai admits his failure on fight for great khaan’s throne;
1266- arig bukh dies; haidu, the grand-son of ogodei khaan forms an alliance against hubilai;
1271- hubilai becomes the emperor of yuan mongol dynasty in china;
1274-after learning the naval warfare on yangtze river, mongols attack japan;
1275-zebe, the one of the greatest general of chingis khaan and his sons, dies at age 99; marco polo, his father and uncle arrive at shang-tu, the yan capital, where they payrespects to the mongol emperor of yan dinasty in . it took them 3.5 years to make the entire journey, with many stops and detours along the way. during his 17 years in china , marco polo is allegedly appointed an official of the imperial government according to him. and he is entitled to travelall over . if it is true;
1279-khubilai completes the occupation of china;
1280-mongols attack burma; munkhe becomes the khaan of golden orde state in russia;
1281- mongols attack second time japan;
1282: the uzbek khaan converts the shaybanid mongols to islam and his horde becomes known as the uzbeks;
1287-mongols under command of nayan in manchuria rebell against hubilai khaan-mongols occup;
a letter written in 1289 by argun, a mongol ruler over persia.
1292-hubilai sends an army of 30 000 to java. the mongols win initial victories, but they retreat soon;
1294-hubilai khaan dies;
1301-haidu/the grandson of ogoodei/. who was in trouble with hubilai for 40 years, dies;
1304- mongols under ali beg invade india but are repelled by the delhi sultanate
1305- ulziit khaan sends a letterto philippe 1 of france;
1307-olzii tomor khaan dies; haisan huleg khaan is elected;
1311-haisan huleg khaan dies; rashid –ad-din composes an historical account entitled; tumur khaan establishes herlen bar city in eastern mongolia;
1312 ayur balbad is declared as khaan;
1324-esen tomor khaan is crowned;
1326-esen tomor khaan dies;
1328-the golden orde’s ruler batu khaan, the the grand-son of chingiskhaan, recognizes moscow’s ivan 1st,;
1336-tamerlan or dogolon tumur is born near samarkand;
1337-chinese rebell against mongol occupation;
1365: the turkic-speaking timur/tamerlane overthrow the chaghatai khanate and conquers persia, establishing his capital in samarkand
1368 -chinese drive 60000- mongol troops led by togoontumor/the last mongol emperor of the china;
1370- mongolian capital is moved back from beijing to harkhorin;
1380- when moscowbecomes stronger,a prince named dmitri donskoy attacks mongols and obtains the decisive victory at kulikovo field at don over mongols. the victory makes him a popular hero.but mongol domination continues until 1480; chinese troops raid into mongolia and destroy harkhorin;
1389-tumur ravages kashgar in today’s xinjiang;
1402: timur captures ottoman turk sultan beyazid i
1405: timur dies (buried in samarkand) on his way to conquer china and his empire disintegrates;
1407: timur’s son shah rukh re-conquers most of timur’s empire;
1409-oirad mongols attack beijing;
1414-oirad forces are defeated by chinese;
1417: shah rukh is succeeded by his son ulugh beg
1421-oirad mongol forces penetrate as far as issyk kul lake in central asia;
1434-togoon, an oirad commander rules all mongolia;
1414-chinese troops defeat oirad forces;
1417: shah rukh is succeeded by his son ulugh beg
1449-oirad mongols under command of esen khaan attack beijing and capture a chinese emperor; ulugh beg is murdered by his own son
1455-infighting between oirad and estearn mongols comes to an end;
1459-esen khaan is killed;
1466-batmonkh is elected as the khaan of mongols; he succeeds to temporarily unify most of mongols;
1468-uzbeks, a group of islamised mongols split in 2 groups:proto-uzbeks and proto-kazaks. those who moved to south-east mix with sedentary populations of turkic and iranian stock. others who stay in the steppe start mixing with nomadic kyrgyz and kurkic tribes;
1470-batumonkhe/dayan khan/ is crowned;
1497: babur, a turkic descendant of both genghis khan and timur, becomes the ruler of ferghana and founds the mughal (mogul) dynasty
1543-batumonkhe, the last khaan of allmongolia, dies;
1500-the shaybani uzbeks, the descendents of uzbeg khaan, agrandson of changezi khaan, defeat timurids, the descendents of tamerlane and set up their capital in bukhara;
1500-the ivan 3rd, finally declares full and unlimited russian independence from the mongols, and the last and most enduring part of the mongol empire ends;
1542- ming state executes a envoy sent by altan khaan, the grand-son of batmonkh khaan;
1543- batmonkh dayan khaan, the last khaan of all mongolia dies;
1550- forces of tumed mongols of altan khaan reach the gates of beijing forcing ming state to negotiate about trade and commerce;
1552 -russians seize kazan;
1556 -russians occupy astrakhan;
1575- nurkhachi, a warlord becomes the ruler of manchu tribes who used to live in southern part of today’s manchuria;
1578-nearkokonur/”blue lake” in mongolian/ altan khaan of southern mongols receives sonam gyatso, 3rd reincarnated head of gelukpa buudhismand gives him the title of dalai/”ocean” in mongolia/. altan khaan is taking buddhist faith; so gyatso becomes the third dalai lama;
1581-tsogt taij, the famous freedom fighter is born;
1582 -the russian tsar sends yermak, leader of a band of independent russian cossacks, he spent his early career plundering the czar’s ships on the volga theon an expedition to protect their lands in western siberia from attack by local altaic tribes. advancing in river boats, yermak and his band cross the urals and with the superior force of firearms conqueredthe capital of the tatar khanate of sibir and he placesthe conquered territory under the protection of czar ivan iv and asked him for aid. yermak was killed in an encounter with the tatars, and his troops were forced to retreat;
1586-the construction of erdenezuu, the first buddhist monastery in starts;
1604-tomsk is founded;
1606-in september, boroldoi, the oirad envoy sent by hoo orlog, is met by the governor of tar/the todays omsk/.
1608-on february, oirad envoys is met by the russian tsar, vasilii shuiskii;
1616-the first russian ambassador comes to mongolia; nurkhachi becomes the king of newly formed manchu state;
1621-guen baatar anddaivchin hia carve into a rock the poetry spoken by tsogt prince while hunting;
1624-mongols from gorlos, horchin,dorbet and jalair tribes surrender to manchus;
1627-galdan is elected as khaan of zuungar mongols;
1631-the troops led by ligden khaan pass hingan mountains and destroy forces of horchins and tumeds who had surrendered to manchus;
1632-kalmuk mongols leave zuungar;
1634 -mongol troops led by ligden, the last khaan of all mongols are defeated by manchu forces and ligden escapes to koko nuur where he dies soon afterwards; tsogt prince who is expelled from halh mongolia for his support for ligden’s fight against manchu, reaches koko lake. but he finds the khaan dead. tsogt commence fighting against tibetans; later tsogt dies during a battle against guush khaan’s forces of oirads;
1635-zuungar empire is establishedby oirad mongols which extends from western to tian shan mountains , lands of the today’s eastern kazakstan and xinjiang; zurchens start naming themselves as manchus;
1636-on the assembly of 16 inner mongolian aymaks, the decision of surrender to manchus is taken. inner mongolia is now under machu rule;
1637- tsogt prince dies;
1643 the oyrats who stayed in zungaria conquer semirechye;
1639- zanabazar is declared as the head of mongolian buddhists;
1640- in august, at place called ulaan buraa near tarbagatai mountain, the dignities from oirad and halkha mongols meet in in effort to resolveinternal disagreements;
1644-internal rivalry among chinese allows the manchus to complete the conquest of min state of china by capturingbeijing and establish qing empire. the manchus adopt many aspects of chinese culture and ruled in some ways while preserving special privileges for themselves; on july 6, german army reports that kalmuk cavallry unit comprises 3592 soldiers and 4600 horses;
1645 the russians reach the pacific ocean; -the manchus rule with population segregation forcing the chinese population for example to adopt manchu hairstyle and dresses. chinese men have to shave their forehead and wear a queue. intermarriage is forbidden;
1648 -eastern buryat mongols/agiin buryats/ become russian citizens; zaya pandita composes a new alphabet (the kalmuck ), in which these ambiguities are avoided, though the graphic differences between the two alphabets are only slight;
1649-zanabazar of 14leaves mongolia to study in tibet;
1651-irkutsk is build as a cossack garrison to control the indigenous people-buryats;
1653-russian cosacks build chita;
1668-russian cossacks build verkhneudinsk/today’s ulan-ude/, a military outpost in a valley between hamar dabaan and tsagaan dabaan mountain ranges in southern siberia;
1671-galdan becomes the head of oirad mongol assembly;
1685- galdan boshigt khaan commences an agriculture for his troops on the valley of hovd river that later would grow as hovd town.
1688-a new civil war started between oirads and halha mongols when galdan boshigt khaan invades to central mongolia-oirad troops destroy monasteries in urga;
1690-galdan boshigt fights against manchu troops near lake olgoi;
1691-in doloonnuur, 550 halkha mongol dignities officially surrender to manchus, halkha mongolia is now under the kangxi emperor or enkh amgalan khan of manchus; manchus maintain the artificial division of mongolia as outer mongolia and and inner mongolia in order to prevent the mongols from uniting against them;
1695: anti-russian revolt by buryats is suppressed;
1696-5.15 while galdan boshisgt khaan is battling in eastern mongolia, his rivals in western mongolia, organise a coup cutting him support from the homeland. troops of galdan boshigt khaan coragiously fight against manchus near zuunmod, nalaikh and are defeated;anti-russian revolt by buryats is suppressed;
1697-3.13-while being desperate after the heavy defeat by manchus, galdan boshigt khaan dies at his age 52 after taking himself a poison in place called acha amtatai along with anujin, the queen, his wife and the daughter of ochit tsetsen khaan, dies too;
1702-some buryat mongols join russia of pyotr 1;
1715-russia”s petr the great invades the kyrgyz steppes and begins building russian forts;
1718 -the oirat mongols defeat the kazakh middle horde north of lake balkash;
1719-russians build a small fortress/today’s omsk/ in siberia to be used as the military headquarters of cossack regiments;
1720-manchus release a decret of regulation of chinese merchants in mongolia in order to avoid mongol’s assilitation by chinese;
1721-borhurgan, the oirad emissar is received by pyotr i, the russian tsar and discussed of ossible russia-oirad alliance against manchu agression;
1723-oirad mongols raid into northern transoxiana; oirad forces led by tserendondovs, the brothers, defeat 20000-manchu troops near hobdo. but the oirad forces are soon defeated after entering halha areas;
1725-the first chinese settled in the basins of tuul and orkhon rivers in by decrees of manchu qing emperor.one of basic duties of the chinese settlers was to provide food for chinese troops stationed in to fight the rebellious oirad mongols;
1728-russian empire and qing china conclude the treaty ofkyakhta which determines the border between them from argun river to mongol shariin davaa, a pass bordering with krasnoyarsk region. russia admits manchu rule over mongolia and tuva;
1729-russia annexes buryatia, the mongol region in siberia;
1730-manchus turn the mongolian agriculure in hovd river valley into their military fortress;
173kazaks seek russian protection from oirats mongols;
1732-zuungar has been defeated;
1733- mancus set up a large military base in the western mongolia that would grow later into ulyastai town;
1755-in july, zuun gar is finally occupied by manchus as 7000 oirad troops under comand of davaach are defeated by manchu army led by bandi, the inner mongol general-traitor and supported by some betrayed oirads;
1757-on june 30th, 3000-men oirad forces led by amarsanaa battle against 10000-manchu troops in a place called sharbal. the oirads are defeated during these 15-day bloody battles: 2500 are killed, hundreds are injured and captured. amarsanaa and few of his fighters escape to russia. the last big resistance by mongols ends so disastrous;chingunjav, the mongolian freedom fighter and his family, is brutally executed in beijing by manchus; dorvod tribesmen who surrendered to the manchus, settle in uvs lake area; tuva comes under manchus; manchus conquer the ili valley and the tarim basin; oirat khanates cease to exist;
1758- the qing emperors, themselves originally from the far east edge of the steppe, campaign in the west and in with th qianlong emperor taking control of xingiang;
1761-manchu amban resides in ikh huree, the capital of mongolia;
1762-first chinese settle in the khobdo area by decrees of manch qing emperor-a full-scale moslem rebellion led by the ruler of kashgaria, yakub beg, armed and supported by the british who were seeking influence in this buffer zone betweenindia and russia, breaks out; hobdo city moves to today’s location-the banks of buyant river;
1767-a school opens in hobdo in which 20 pupils from oold and myangad tribes learn;
1771- 1.05-kalmuks mongols under command ubaishi khaan depart from central russia for zuungar of xinjiang. 7 months later a few of them reach the homeland after being furiously pursued by russian armies and kyrgyzs and kazaks with whom they had daily to fight bloody battles. wells on their road were poisoned;
1775-in siberia, verkhneudinsk/today’s ulaan-ude/ is founded;
1778-ikh huree, the moving capital of mongols is established permanently in on the banks of tuul river;
1832- “chingis khaan’s stone”, the stone monument with a historical record on it is discovered in nerchinsk district, to west from baikal lake by the russian explorer, spasski. text from the monument erected between in 1224-1225 is the following:”cinggis qan-i sartagul irgen daquliju baguju xamug mongol ulus un arad i buqa sociqai xurigsan tur esunke qongodorun gurban jagud gucin tabun alda tur ontudlu ga”
1838-gandan monastery is open in urge/today’s ulanbaatar/;
1860-first time, the russian consulate opens in urge/ikh huree/; russia forces manchu dynasty to open the oasis city of kashgar in xinjiang to russian traders;
1862-the russian consulate is open in hill near maakhuur tolgoi in urga;
1865-in xinjiang, yakub beg, a tajik warlord leads a small force and enthrones himself in kashgar;
1866 -first 6 kazak families settle in mongolia/by the way, till 1940s, kazak people are known as kyrgyzs to mongols/;
1867 -the russians create the governorate-general of turkestan, with tashkent as its capital;
1868 -samarkand is joined to russia; the russians create the governorate-general of the kazakh steppe, with orenburg as its capital;
1871- on march 13th, damdinsuren or manlai baatr, the famous military commander was born;
1872-tseren chimed, the interior minister under bogd khan, is born; in xinjiang, yakub beg completes occupation of urumchi;
1873- naidan gomboev, a buryat sent by russian imperial general staff,arrives in along with other pilgrims;
1879-the most of irkutsk is burnt down by diastrous fire;
1881 russians are allowed to build permanent houses in tuva;
1882- russians establish the consulate in kashgar. nikolai petrovski, the consul general arrives there with a guard of 45 cossacks; he was a very learned person in history, archeology and languages of xinjiang peoples;
1885 -a big group of captured tuvan guerillas, the people ofmixed tiurko-mongol-uigur origin,are brought and executed in public in ulyastai by order ofmanchu amban;
1893- on february 2, sukhbaatar, the leader of outer mongolian independence movement, is born; novosibirsk/novonikolaevsk/ is founded;
1898-trans-siberian railroad reaches irkutsk , the major city of the buryat region; a school opens in urge in which children from tsetsen khan and tusheet khan provinces attend;
1900- mongolian recruits assault manchu-chinese soldiers in ulyastay; togtokh, a inner mongolian commander launches active battles against chinese troops; marchall demid, the commander of mongolian army is born;
1902 -02.08-mr. demchigdonrov, the leader of inner mongolian independence movement is born;
1904-russian-japanese war breaks out in manchuria;
1905-russian -japanese war ends with japanese victory;
1906-natsagdorj dashdorjiin, the great mongolian poet is born;
1907-kozlov p. k, a russian explorer led by a buryat colleague, tsogto badmazhapov finds the ruins of lost city of khara-hoto, the ancient capital of tanguts. the ruins are being found in the sands between2 river valleys;
1908-the manchu amban of kobdo expells russian colonists; vladimirtsov, the russian explorer visits the dorbet tribe in western mongolia;
1909-kozlov’s expedition returns to ruins of khara hoto/”black city”/ and uncover a stupa northwest of the city wall. due to dry climate, its contents-manuscripts, books, bronze, and wooden statues-were preserved as in a time capsule. the russians send 12000 items to the hermitage and the institute of oriental studies in st. petersburg;
1910-on march 26th, a clash breaks out between chinese traders and mongol lamas and civilians in urga.sando, the manchu representative who comes to the place of trouble, retreats immediately as he comes under a stone throwing attack of the mongols; after heavy clashes with chinese troops, inner mongolian fighters under command of togtoh taij and bayar gun retreat to russia and permitted by tzar for a temporary settlement in siberian town of novo durulguevsk;
1911 – in july, mongolian aristocrats and religous leaders secretly meet and agree on that in future, mongolia should not remain under manchu rule and mongols should seek for russia’s help for achieving the goal;on august 15th, the mongolian delegation headed by prince handdorj arrives in russian capital. on the next day, the delegation is received by the russian foreign minister,sazonov. the mongols hand him a letter from bogd gegeen in which the mongolia’s religous leader asks for russian help on recognition ofindependence, official protection by russia and establishment and development of trade, building railway and post and communications. besides bogd gegeen, the letter is signed by dashnyam, the tusheet khan aymak’s/province/governor, navaanneren, the tsetsen khan’s governor and namnansuren, the sayin noyon khan’s governor; on october 29th, the manchu commander and other manchu-chinese authorities and personnals are expelled from ulyastai town; on nov.16th, the manchu authorities are driven out of urge/today’s ulaanbaatar/; as the manchus havelargely assimilated by chinese, the manchu dynasty of china is officially overthrown and a republic is declaredby sun yat-sen; on december 29th, outer mongolia declares its independence on the basis that it’s allegiance had been to the manchus, not china. jebtsundamba khutuktu, a tibetan becomes the bogd khan (holy ruler) of mongolia. 5 ministries are established. russian officers are soon within the newly independent country training a mongolian army;china refuses recognition of outermongolia’s independence, but is in too much internal discord to move troops into the region; ataman semyonov graduates orenburg military school;
1912-35 of 49 inner mongolian provinces apply for joining outer mongolia; on january 10, handdorj, the foreign minister of mongolia under bogd, is received by nikolai 2, in tsarskoe selo-bargas from inner mongolia, want to join the outer mongolia; in august, inspired by news and tales of daring attacks by djaa lama, a western mongolian militant, baron ungern, a russian officerwho some years later would play main role in liberation of outer mongolia from chinese troops,departs on horseback for hobdo area. his aim is to meet djaa lama and to offer his participation in the incoming battles for the city; in summer, a group of 1000 tuvan volunteers departfor the western mongolia to takeparticipation in the battle for kobdo; in august 6th, mongol forces liberate hobdo town from chinese troops; on november 3, mongolian-russian agreement is signed in niyslel huree. the russian delegation is led by korostovetz. the agreement has a supplementary commercial protocol. the agreement grants the former only affirmed mongolia’s autonomy from china. the russian agreement and a protocol to it creats a tsarist protectorate over outer mongolia.allowing mongolia to have national army, the agreement refuses to admit chinese troops and colonists; namnansuren, the prime minister and korostovets, the special envoy of russia sign on the creation a mongolian army brigade of 1900 men and involvement of 42 russian military instructors; in november, outer mongolia mobilizes 15000-men army to liberate dariganga and inner mongolia. the army is split into5 divisions: gun sodnomdorj leads southern offensive, gun navaangombo, gun haisan and tushmed bavuujav lead dariganga assault,ded said nasanravjikh for 2 sunid areas,zutgelt for urad3 gun and chimedtseren and zorigt baatar togtokh for eguzer direction. the army is under the general command ofmanlai van damdinsuren;
1913 -1.12-mr. namnansuren, the prime minister of mongolia under bogdo khaan, has been received by the russian tsar; over 700 buryat mongol families flee the unstability in siberia and enter into tsetsen khaan aymag’s territory of mongolia; on july 7, the outer mongol army led by manlai baatar damdinsuren leaves niislel huree/urge/ and attacks hokh hot; in august, morrentsen avarga wins danshig naadam and junai arslan wins 10 zasag naadam; on october 1st, the outer mongolia’s delegation headed by the prime minister, namnansuren, departs on horses from niislel huree for russia meet the tzar, nikolai second. the aim of visit is to seek a support from russia overmongolia’s independence and get loans and arms; poorly equipped with russian and japanese arms, outer mongolian cavalrymen reinforced by 35000-southern mongol guerrillas are already fighting for 12th months against outnumbered chinese forces in inner mongolia. during the campaign dariganga of outer mongolia and darkhan uul, shurga uul, bandid monastery and hoh hot of inner mongolia are liberated from chinese troops.at the time when the mongol forces advance towards janchhuu,the campaign is called off by a protocol signed in november 5th, in which russia recognizes chinese suzerainty over mongolia and china recognizes outer mongolia’s right to self-rule and to the control of it’s own commerce and industry, as well as an agreement not to send troops and colonists into mongolia. outer mongolian army returns home; on november 5th, strenuous negotiotions between russia and china results the china-russian protocol;
1914 -in february, the mongolian -russian agreement of forming a russian-trained armybrigade, is signed; sukhbaatar damdinii, a young sergeant leads a protest by mongol soldiers over poor food supply in hujirbulan garrison; in the spring, russia withdraws its military contingent which was stationed in mongolia in 1913;
1915-5.25-kyahta treaty/china-russia-mongolia/ is signed formalising outer mongolian autonomy; junai arslan wins 10 zasag naadam’s wrestling competition;at end of october, after being defeated by chinese troops, at end of october, bavuujav, the prominent inner mongolian fighter escapes to dariganga of outermongolia; handdorj is killed by unidentified 3 horsemen while escaping a party held in bogd khaan’s palace;
1916- in july, vandan avarga wins the outer mongolia’s 10 zasag naadam wrestling; on september 17, tsedenbal yumjaagiin, the best leader of mongolia in 20th century was born; the chinese immigrants who reached 110000 by 1911, now are reduced to 35000;
1917- in russia, the february revolution occurs in which tzar nicholai ii is forced to abdicate and the duma forms a provisional government. it’s soon followed by the october revolution in which the bolsheviks stage a coup engineered by leon trotsky. the council of people’s commissars is established with vladimir ilich lenin as chairman; 3.23-kazak settlers obtain the mongolian citizenship; on april 11th, bogd khaan nominates yost gun chultem as his representavive to ulyastai town;
on september 30th, a fighting erupts between outer mongolian border unit and inner mongolian cavalry led by harchin gun bavuujav;
1918-in russia, the bolsheviks sign the treaty of brest-litovsk with the central powers. it is soon rendered moot by the german armistice with the other allies in november and the russian civil war begins between the ‘red’ bolsheviks and the ‘white’ anti-bolshevik forces; the bolsheviks sign the treaty of brest-litovsk with the central powers. it is soon rendered moot by the german armistice with the other allies in november and the russian civil war begins between the ‘red’ bolsheviks and the ‘white’ anti-bolshevik forces; kolchak, the tzarist naval officer becomes the minister of war in non-bolshevik government in siberia; on february 16th, the white army captures chita town in siberia ; an autonomous siberian government is formed, butis soon superseded by the regime of the counterrevolutionary admiral a. v. kolchak who makes his capital at omsk . white forces are aided by contingents of czarist political exiles and by the czech legion, a group of austrian army deserters who hadto fight alongside the tzarist army; skillfully using the weakeness of by the world war,china improves significantly their position over outer mongolia. with collapse of tsarist power of russia, the mongolian autonomy has lost its protector.the treaty kyakhta becomes a scrap of paper. in september, chinese troops led by general hsu/”little hsu”/commences invasion to outer mongolia; 44% of outer mongolia’s male population are comprised of buddhist monks called as lamas;
1919-on february 16th,delegates from buryatia and inner mongolia declare of creation of the greater mongolian state .the head of the government is neise gegeen/mendbayar/. the new state may extend frombaikal lake to inner mongolia. because the mongolian language is actually spoken from siberia to tibetan border in tsinkhai and from xinjiang/eastern turkistan/ to manchuria /later mr. mendbayar, the head of the its government and other delegates from inner mongolia are killed in kyakhta by chinese troops/. the pan-mongolian movement dies for an uknown time; on april, namnansuren, the prime minister dies at age 41; on april 13th, the bogd khaan’s government announces its refusal to join the newly declared the greater mongolia’sgovernment;grigory semenov declares himself the ataman of the transbaikal cossack host with the support from the japanese; on june 14th, bogd khaan nominates shanzodba badamdorj to take the prime ministers post vacanted since the death of namnansuren; in october, the chinese general hsu shu-cheng is dispatched to urga with 12000 soldiers; on november 22, the president of china announces of dismissal of outer mongolia’s autonomy dismissing/abrogating/ the previously concluded china-russia-mongolian agreement and china-russian declaration;
1920- in january, in urge, chinese troops disarm mongolian army and organise a festivity to celebrate the their elimination of outer mongolian autonomy;a letter/122x20sm/ by mongol khaan guyuk to pope written 1246 is discovered in vatican by karalewski, the polish monk; on 3.02, red russians capture verkhneudinsk/ulaan ude/; in october, the joint forces of tsar russians, tartars, bashkorts and ethnic mongols from buryatia and inner mongolia led by russian general-lieutenant baron roman ungern-sternbergpenetrate in outer mongolia from its north-eastern border at the invitation of the displaced bogd khaan, mongolia’s civil and religious ruler; in november, ungern’s forces fail to capture urga or orgoo, the capital of outer mongolia from chinese troops; on july 15, sukhbaatar secretly leaves urge for the mission to get help from the red russians; in july, dandinsuren, a former commander who was secretly preparing an revolt againstchinese troops and magsarjav are arrested; in november, the units of the red army and guerrillas oust semenov’s army from the baikal region and beyond; on oct 10th, the asiatic cavalry division fails to capture urge from chinese troops; on nov. 2, ungern’s units appraoch urge again; on nov.4, by the end of the day, ungern’s forces push chinese soldiers from their ground fortification. the chinese release harchin mongol/inner mongols/ prisoners captured a year ago along with neis gegeen and give arms forcing them to fight. instead, the inner mongols immediately join the ungern’s forces; on nov 5, general ungern takes the decision to halt offensive and retreat towards terelj mountains, then to the steppes around herlen river; in december, ungern’s forces approach again to niislel huree/ former urge or today’s ulanbaatar/and station near nalaikh;damdinsuren, the famous mongolian commander dies in a chinese prison in the capital; on 12.31, a ungern’s task group led by tubanov, a buryat officer releases bogd gegeen, the religious leader of outer mongolia from chinese house arrest; in central asia, red army captures ashgabat, ending anti-bolshevik government there, and bukhara, ending khanate; faizulla khijayev becomes president of newly established soviet bukharan people’s republic; kyrgyz autonomous soviet socialist republic established, including kyrgyzstan and kazakhstan.
1921-on february 2nd, in the dawn, ungern starts a new attempt to capture niislel huree; on feb 3rd, by midday, 1000-ungern forces made of russians, buryats, inner mongols, bashkirs, halhas and tartars capture urge from 15000-chinese troops. chinese merchants flee the city; immediately after the capture of urga,baron ungern orders to erect an electric station, telephone sistem and wireless station. he also orders his men to clean and disinfect the city which probably did not experience since too long time. he arranges an autobus traffic between different parts of the city; on february, sukhbaatar meets sumiya beis, the famous inner mongol commander and discusses plans of liberation of kyakhta from chinese troops; on march, in early morning, 18th, not having response to their ultimatum, 400- red mongol rebels start the offensive against the 10000-men chinese troops gathered in kyakhta. by the night, the mongol cavalry captures the city. the remnants of the chinese troops are destroyed afterwards near today’s lun village; on march 21st, outer mongolia’s independence is declared again by baron ungern; in china, sun yat-sen is elected president of a self-proclaimed national government at guangzhou; in may, white russian troops led by kaigorodov, capture hobdo; on may 21st, baron ungern issues the order no.15 about the offensive on troitskosavsk from 6 directions; on may 23rd, ungern leads himself the offensive; on june 5th, an ungern’s unit headed of bayar gun/prince/, the inner mongol commander, captures ivtseg village; 7.06- red russians and their mongol allies enter in urge which is already abandoned by ungern forces; on july 18th and 21st, heavy fightings take places between ungern-rezukhin forces and russian red army units near akhai gun monastery in selenge river valley; on july 24th, white russian forces led by ungern and rezukhin enter again in russian territory; on august 5th, red forces defeat ungern’s units near galuut lake in buryatia; on 8.16.the people’s rubublic of tuva is declared; general rezukhin, the commander of ungern’s 2nd division is killed; 9.15-baron ungern, the russian general of baltic german origin who liberated mongolia from chinese troops and who also fought for a tsarist order in russia, is executed by a bolshevik firing squad in novonikolaevsk/today’s novosibirsk/,russia; in september, after having retreated to primorye, semenov tries to continue fighting the soviets, but isfinally forced to emigrate; djaa lama, the western mongolian leader who declares himself the reincarnation of zunghar anti-manchu rebel amarsana, raids manchu-chinese establishments in western mongolia and fights back kazak warlords in the region and xinjiang/or chinese turkistan/; djaa a lama lockes himself up in the fortified town of majinsan; on november 5th, red russian-mongolian is concluded. the treaty recognizes the autonomy of outer mongolia, but not the suzerainty of china; in november, the academy of science is established/sudar bichgiin hureelen/; on november 26th,niislel huree is renamed to ulaanbaatar; on decenber 21, the participants of an alleged cope attempts, 48 people including tuvanov, a former buryat commander of ungern’s task forces which released bogd khaan from chinese captivity and ochirov, another former ungern’s buryat commander, are arrested; the aim of the alleged cope led by jamyandanzan, the former commander of ungern’s tibetan unit, was to topple the new bolshevik government of mongolia; the first cultural center called “ardiin ordon” or “people’s palace” is open in urge;
1922-in january, the rest of ungern’s forces are defeated in mongolia;first bolshevik mission, led by kalmuk cavalry commander, vasily khomutnikov, and a buryat lama, dava yampilon, turns up lhasa , and presents the dalai lama with a letter from dorzhiev praising lenin’s treatment of russian buddhists; 8.30-bodoo and 14 other officials are executed by decree of a special commission. the decree was signed by damdinbazar, the prime minister, tserendorj, the foreign minister, djigmeddorj, the deputy foreign minister, jamiyan-ochir, elbegdorj,an advisor, the interior minister, sukhbaatar, the defense minister, magsarjav, the deputy defense minister, danzan…;
1923 -on february 22, sukhbaatar damdinii, the founder of mongolian people’s republic dies after being poisoned; lenin and stalin establish the buryat-mongol autonomous soviet socialist republic; avkhia jarantai, the famous mongolian general and lawer is born in today’s sharga, gobi altai aymak;
1924 -on may 31, “the agreement on general priciples for the settlement of the questions between the republic of china and ussr” is signed in beijing. 2 causes concern mongolia: outer mongolia is an integral part of the republic of china. the government of soviet union/ussr/ declares that as soon as the question of the withdrawal of all the troops of ussr from outer mongolia-namely as to the timelimit of the withdrawal of such troops and the measures to be adopted in the interests of the safety of the frontiers-are agreed upon in the conference as provided in article 2 of the present agreement, it will effect the complete withdrawal of all the troops of ussr from outer mongolia; bogd gegeen, the religious leader of mongolia, dies; on november 26, the mongolian people’s republic proclaimed; soviet -style state constitution is adopted; niyslel huree, the capital city is renamed ulaanbaatar; on august 30th, danzan, the commander of armed forces and bavaasan are shot by the military tribunal;
1925- red army troops are withdrawn from mongolia; on 6.5-the first mongolian military air unit is established and equipped byfour r-1s;in march 1925, an aviation branch was formed with four aircraft and this event continues to be celebrated annually as mongolian aviation day; -taking advantage of confusion caused by infightings between kommunist and nationalists in china, japan seizes manchuria/today’s north-eastern china/ and sets up a puppet state with the last emperor, piu; — on july 31st, a japaneseaeroplane crosses the mongolia border in the region of buir lake and attackes 15th mongolian cavalry unut. mr.gombo, chief of the unit, fires twice through the ger opening, damaging the aircraft engine and wounding one of the crew.when they land,they are captured. the pilot johann rathe aged 26, born in berlin , and the radio operator/photographer otto kalbert aged 25 are punished according to the law; in ulaanbaatar, the first modern hospital is open with the assistance of russians;
1926-kozlov, the russian explorer visits kara-hoto again but he fails to find statues that he had hidden in 1909.
1927-the russian explorer simukov excavates the famous grave near noyon mountain in the today’s southern gobi aymak.
1928- in november, the decision to confiscate the “feudal properties” is taken; 729 “feudals” are registered to be confiscated;
1929- in china, chiang kai-shek becomes head of a nationalist goverment based at nanjing and generalissimo of all nationalist chinese forces. though greatly weakened by sun’s suppression in the 20s and the capture of some of their major leaders, the communists still prove to be a seething nuisance in the countryside and chiang embarks on a campaign to crush them completely before continuing his conquest of china;
1930- in china, in nanking, the chinese capital, on may 1st, the explorers, stein and lampson receives visas which authorizy only “investigation of historical traces including relics of art and writing”.
1931- in august, the first teatre opens in ulaanbaatar; lamas rebel in western aymaks;-on september 18,mukden incident, also called the manchurian incident, occurrs in southern manchuria when a section of railroad, owned by japan’s south manchuria railway, near mukden (today’s shenyang) is blown up by japanese junior officers. japan military accuses chinese dissidents of the act, thus providing an excuse for the japanese;
1932 -after general ting chao’s defeat, general ma resumed negotiations with colonel doihara, while his army escaped to russian territory and then returned to china. with his army safe, general ma, is said to have accepted one million dollars in gold offered by doihara. he agreed on 14 february to retain his post as governor of heilungkiang province and cooperate with the japanese. on february 27th, general ting chao, offered to cease hostilities, seemingly ending official chinese resistance in manchuria.
on february 18th, in manchuria, japan declares so-called the ” great manchu state “/manchukuo/occupy all three of the provinces of manchuria and founds the state of manchukuo including all 3 provinces of manchuria-heilongjiang, jilin and liaoning and part of eastern inner mongolia; on march 9, the state of manchukuo isinaugurated at the new capital changchun under the former emperor, pu yi,who was deposed in 1911; buddhist lamas in arkhangai and huvsgul aymags rebel against the government; on may 18th, natsagdorj, the greatest mongolian poet is arrested on false charges and stayes in custody for 170 days;
1933-on july 2nd, danzan, a hentii aymak’s security officer, fabricates a fraud charges about a alleged spy plot; on july 22nd, lkhumbe is arrested onalleged charges; on july 26th, mr.demchigdonrov, a direct descendent of changezi khaan who dedicated his whole life for the mongolian cause, almost succeeds in establishing an independent inner mongolia . he holds the first conference of inner mongolia self-ruling government which lasts till 1945; the first radio broadcasting starts in ulaanbaatar; the chinese communist partybegan revolutionary activities in xinjiang/or chinese turkistan/; the union of artisans is organized;
1934-in february, the central power plant starts its operation in ulaanbaatar; the distinguished mongol pilot shagdarsuren makes a 5000km flight on a r5; november,mongolian-soviet “gentlemen’s agreement” allows soviet troops to enter into mongolia; the industrial combinat/plants/, the flagship of mongolian industry, begins operating in ulaanbaatar. it has own power plant, cloth factories, tanneries, and wool-scouring mill that produce blankets, felt, footwear, leather coats, and soap; the first cinema is open in ulaanbaatar;
1935-9.29, d. zagdhorloo, the first mongol woman makes the first jump with parachute from 600meters;choibalsan becomes the deputy prime minister;
1936 -on february 21st, demid, the commander of the mongolian people’s army, gets the rank of marshall; on april 9th, japanese occupy dolnuur city in today’s inner mongolia; on may 12th, ” great mongol state ” is declared at a meeting ofrepresentatives from shiliingol, chahar, ihzuu, ulaantsav, sungaan, alshaa and eznee aymaks of inner mongolia . mr. demchigdonrov is appointed as itspresident; on april 7, d. demberel, the famous mongol pilot, who clashed successfully with japanese air forces receives the title of th heroe of mongolian people’s republic; march 12, treaty and mutual defense protocol signed with soviet union; natsagdorj, the great poet is arrested again and released on bail offered by someone called by barchuluun;
1937- the dreams of buryat mongolian autonomy collapses. in only a few months most of the buryat communist leadership, intelligentsia, and religious leaders are rounded up and slaughtered. prominent buryats such as rinchino, baraadin, jamtsarano, agvan dorjiev, and many others disappear in soviet prisons. rinchino, the famous pan-mongolist, is shot after beatings and torture in nkvd custody; march 7, luvsansharav and choibalson publicly charge amar, the prime minister with counterrevolutionary activities at an enlarged meeting of the central committee and the state small khural. on july 13th, natsagdorj, the greatest mongolian poet suspiciously dies; in august, the commander of mongolian armed forces dies inthe soviet union in a suspiscious circumstances; on december 10, choibalsan’s interior ministery starts the great massacre by arresting 115 innocent people; choibalsan slaughters most males of buryats; in china, parts of the chinese workers’ and peasants’ red army go to xinjiang. later sheng shicai turned to the kuomintang/nationalist’s/ government; soviet army units station in the country at request of mongolian government; 771 monasteries are registered in mongolia;
1938- in buryatia, kgb arrests a group of an alleged pan-mongol organisation; 760 monasteries are closed, then dissambled and used for construction ofvillages, schools, workshops, school boards, hospitals, army baracks and administrative buildings throuhout the country; 20474 overwelmingnly innocent mongols are killed by during 1937-1939 by the interior ministery under lead of bloody marshall choibalsan; on 11 august 19th,both sides, japanese and soviets-mongolia agree on the ceasefire in halhiingol border warwhich is maintained a warypresence on the border mongolia-”manchukuo” border until 11 may 1939 when another territorial boundary dispute aroses near nomonhan, along the khalkhin gol river.
1939-the increased military activities in the south-eastern mongolia and inner mongolia occupied by japan soon leads to a major clash over rival mongolia-manchukuo border claims.5.11- a mongolian cavalry unit of some 70-90 men enteres a disputed area in search of grazing for their horses, and encounter manchukuoan cavalry who drive them out of the disputed territory. two days later the mongolian forces return and the manchukoans are unable to evict them; when japanese troops invade eastern mongolia, a ground and air battle with a joint soviet- mongolian army take place at the battle of halhin gol; choibalsan becomes the head of government (chairman of the council of people’s commissars; on june 27th, at about 11 a.m, 73 japanese warplanes attack on bayan tumen town/today’s choibalsan/; jukov, the famous soviet military commander comes to mongolia to lead the military campaigns against japanese forces;on july3rd, at night, japanese troops cross halkhiin gol river and capture bayantsagaan; on august 20, the soviet-mongolian force begin sudden offencive across seventy kilometers of the front and encircle the japanese; on august 27th, the japanese attempt to break out of the encirclement, but fail; on august 31st, the battle endswith the complete destruction of the japanese forces. remaining japanese units retreat back across the river. in the battles, 18100 japanese soldiers were killed and 48600 wounded. soviet and mongolian killed soldiers numbered 8900 killed and 15900 wounded.
1940- on 10th cession, 24 year-old tsedenbal is elected as the general secretary of mprp; all aymaks are provided with radio stations;
1941-the body of tamerlane is permitted to be exhumed by a russian scientist, m. m. gerasimov. the scientist finds timur, after examining his skeleton, a mongoloid man about 5 feet 8 inches. he also confirms tamerlane’s lameness. in his book “the face of finder”, gerasimov explains how he was able to reconstruct exact likenesses of timur from a careful consideration of his skull; in july, prime minister amar is executed in soviet russia;
1942 – on february 13th, the mongolian government commences the nationwide campaign for raising fund in support of soviet union in its war against nazi-germany; as 110th kalmuk special cavalry division led by general o. gorodovikov, looses 90% of its men during heroic battles against german army, the remaining kalmuk soldiers are distributed among other units; in july 1st, togon sanjeev, a buryat, one of the wwii top snipers, is killed by a sniper just after he has killed another german sniper while he and his friend, the legendary nomokonov, also a buryat were in dual with the germans; in october, the mongolian state university opens,
1943- in june, kazaks of altai led by the warlord ospan batir,revolt in protest to a decision of the governor of shen to settle them to southern areas of xinjiang/or chinese turkistan/.many kazaks escape to mongolia; on december 27th, stalin orders to deport kalmuks to siberia.93000 kalmuk mongols are deported from volga region to siberia as “the collaborators with germans”. many kalmuks die during the winter deportation;24000 kalmuk soldiers and officers called off from the soviet army units and sent to siberia and central asia;
1944-mongolia comes to cyrillic characters;
1945-the second world war ends-the firtst congress of the best herders is held. 97 nomads are awarded with the title of “myangat malchin”/”1000-animal breeder”/; by the spring, kazak rebels led by the warlord, ospan liberate most pasture lands in altai, tarbagatai, kuldza and the northern parts of tian shanfrom chinese troops;in august, mongolian- soviet joint forces enter in manchuria and inner mongolia, destroying the greatly weakened japanese army;
september-ataman semyonov, the tsar russian general is captured in manchuria and executed in novosibirsk; on november 03th, mr. demchigdonrov, the leader of inner mongolian independent movement and his aids have been delivered to mongolia;
1946 -on february 27, treaty of friendship and mutual assistance and agreement on economic and cultural cooperation signed with soviet union
1947-in march, tsedenbal meets mrs. filatova, the his lifetime wife in moscow- in summer, ospan’s,a kazak warlord, forces cross the mongolian border and are repelled by borderguards; mongolian cavalry with tank and air support attack the kazakh and koumintang chinese troops; the mongolian scholar, damdinsuren translates “the secret history of mongolia” into modern mongolian language; ulz river is dried out in dashbalbar;
1948-first “5 year plan” starts;
1949-mongolia’s center was linked to soviet union by railway ulaanbaatar-kyakhta; on august 27th, the members of the government of newly declared eastern turkistan/or today’s chinese xinjiang/ die in anair crash over baikal lake; in october, mao zedung proclaims the formationof the people’s republic of china; the consulates of britain and soviet union in kashgar of xinjiang are closed;
1950-in february, the mongolian government handes over mr. demchigdonrov, the leader of inner mongolian independence movement and his aids to kommunist chinese. 3 months earlier mongolian ruler choibalsan had decoyed them to come to ulaanbaatar for an alleged talks. so the inner mongol leaders who were not hoping too much on getting some assistance from mongolia for their desperate soldiers caught in the middle of infightings between kommunist and nationalist chinese forces, are betrayed this badly by the fellow mongolian rulers;
1951- chinese troops occupy the entire xinjiang and institute de facto chinese rule; the last moslem natiuonalist leader in xingiang, osman, a kazak, is executed; on october 10th, kazak refugees from chinese xinjiang are finally admitted to enter pakistan territory after camping a mile from the border for 52 days under constant attacks by chazing troops;
1952-on january 26th, choibalsan who led the cruel massacres of 20474 innocent people in 1937-1939, dies; in may, u.tsedenbal becomes the premier; in september 24th, turkey issues the list of the first 102 kazak refugees from xinjiang/chinese turkistan/ who will be be to shiftedfor the permanent setllementin the country; a ten-year sino-mongolian agreement on economic and cultural cooperation marks an important step in developing relations between the two long-estranged nations. china helps to build railroad lines, gave ruble aid and loans for construction projects, and even sent large contingents of laborers in the mid- 1950s.
1953-stalin dies; 1450 xinjiang’s kazak refugees are airlifted from india and pakistan to turkey; in march, a party central committee plenum reviews the results of the first plan;
1954-in april, 20th party congress belatedly approves guidelines for the second five-year plan (1953-57). 895300 camels registered in mongolia.
1955-the railway line ulaanbaatar-zamiin ud is built; 53 reindeer families of uigur-tuvan origin in hovsgol aymak apply for mongolian citizenship;
1956-in april, “personality cult’ of choybalsan condemned; soviet troops are withdrawn from mongolia; on may, tsedenbal visits western aymaks; damdin dariin, first time wins the naadam’swrestling;
1957-12.04-one of the mightest ever earthquake in world history /8.1 richter scale/takes place at ikhbogd mountain in bayankhongor province killing 30 nomads and hundreds of animals leaving behind 700km long fault line; damdin dariin wins 2nd time the naadam’s wrestling;
1958-mao zedong’s attempt to extend ‘s influence over mongol peoples causes moscow to drop “mongol” from the name of the buryat titular region, and it now is known as the buryat autonomous soviet socialist republic in the soviet union; tsedenbal visits china;damdin dariin wins 3rd time the naadam’s wrestling;
1959-in february, tsedenbal visits moscow in order to meet nikita krushv; tsedenbal yumjaagiin visits india; damdin dariin wins 4thtime the naadam’s wrestling; collectivisations of nomads to state co-operatives start;
1960-jou en lay, the chinese prime minister visits ulaanbaatar and signs an agreement of technical assistance to mongolia; on july 6,
new state constitution adopted; damdin dariin wins 5thtime the naadam’s wrestling; the sino-soviet rift occurrs and china adopts an increasingly hostile policy toward the soviet union and mongolia. chinese border incidents, though not serious, continue through the 1960s, and they are accompanied by a strengthening of the mongolian troop presence in border areas
1961-during the naadam festival, tsedenbal, the mongolian leader breaks his leg in a car accident while traveling with suslov, the one of leaders of ussr; mongolia joins the united nations; the state department store that was built with china’s help, is open;
1962-tsedenbal visits china; on june 7, mongolia joins council for mutual economic assistance;
1963- a passenger plane il-12 crashes on otgontenger mountain killing all on board;
1964-in october, as a pretext to overthrow tsedenbal, at a plenum of the mprp central committee in december 1964, some rivalsaccused tsedenbal of incompetence, corruption, disrespect for principles of “party democracy,” lack of economic discipline, and overreliance on the soviet union for credits.
1965-on 10.02, nine girls-students aged 16-19 from the economic institute, tragically die while fighting a big fire raged in a wheat field, ugtaal state farm;
1966-in january, leonid brezhnev, the leader of soviet union visits mongolia.mongolian treaty of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance og 1946 isrenewed for another twenty years; soon after the signing of the friendship treaty, which includes a defense clause, there is a buildup in mongolia of soviet troops and military infrastructure (including bases, roads, airfields, sheltered fighter aircraft sites, radar detection networks, communication lines, and missile sites);on february, tsedenbal works in hovd aymak; serious mongolian-chinese differences emerge; in china, “cultural revolution” starts; during naadam festival in ulaanbaatar, a suddenflood causes some deaths and destructions;
1967-as soviet military’s construction units come,the chinese constructors go back leaving behind many buildings unfinished; on september 27th, the television center is opened in ulaanbaatar;
1968-with “cultural revolution” going on in china; soviet troops station again in mongolia;
1969-l. brejnev of soviet union pays a short visit to mongolia on his way back to moscow from vadivostok. during the visit, mrs. filatova succeeds to get permission fromthe soviet leader on building the wedding palace by soviets in ulaanbaatar; on novenber 8th, the petrolium refinery in zuun bayan which supplies 30% of country’s demand, stops its production activity due to a technical break occured in processing line;
1971- at end of july, heavy snow falls in hovsgol, bulgan and selenge provinces causing extensive floods. for example, on july 27th, the average depth of snow measured 30sm; on september 13rd, lin bao, the minister of defence of china, dies in a plane crash over mongolia while escaping after a failed plot in china; chaushescu of romania visits mongolia;
1972-j.sambuu, one of leaders of mongolia, dies;
1973-tsedenbal visits cuba; honneker of gdr visits mongolia; erdenet copper mining is started;
1974-l. brejnev visits mongolia; in june, jambyn batmonh becomes the chairman of council of ministers; tsedenbal becomes the chairman of the presidium of the people’s great hural and continues as the party’s first secretary.
1976-in china, cultural revolution formally ends.
1978-mongolia’s the highest birth rate in the period up to 2006;
1979 -dalai lamavisits mongolia.
1980-in spring, aheavy snow storm that only lasted one night, kills millions of animals in eastern aymags; tsedenbal works in 5 western aymaks;
1981-on march, mr.gurragchaa, the first mongolian cosmonaut flyes to the space on a soviet shuttle.
1983-5.01-nyamdalai ts, a man from hatgal village located on the bank of huvsgul lake, flies over the lake on his hand-made plane;mongolia starts expelling 7000 chinese nationals from the country;
1984- in july, a heavy rain that continues for 41 days, starts. the rain greatly damages bridges and roads in zavkhan and hovsgol provinces; on july 26th, tsedenbal is flown to moscow for a medical treatment; on august 22nd, contruction of the upper concrete bridge over herlen river is completed; on august 23rd, mr. while tsedenbal, who succesfully led mongolia to many great achievements for 45 years, is visiting moscowfor treatment of his illness caused by decades of overworks, his rivals force the parliament to announce his retirement and replace him with jambyn batmonh. batmonh becomes party general secretary;
1986-in april,a long-term trade agreement signed with china; in spring, severe steppe fires breaks out in 3 eastern aymaks. the soldiersfrom no.171 borderguard unit stationed in halhiin gol area, batzaya z and amangeldi t die andamanbekh, damdinjav n, baatarchuluun d and oyunbaatar ts are severely burnt while fighting steppe fires. the fire destroyes 56000 non-wild animals; in july, mikhail gorbachev offers to withdraw soviet troops from mongolia. two weeks later, the mongolian government gives its support for “the withdrawal of a considerable part of the soviet troops from mongolia;
1987 in january 15th, soviet union announces its intention to withdraw one of five soviet divisions stationed in mongolia;
1988-there are 480individual and family-based cooperatives in mongolia; in august,the two millionth citizen of mongolia is born;
1990-on october 25th, the last one from soviet union, the kazak sovie republic declares its independence;in november, the “buryat-mongolian people’s party” is formed with the stated aim of reviving buryat-mongolian nationhood. a major buddhist monastery is reopened in buryatia.
1991-12.25-mikhail gorvachev declares the end of soviet union; within 4 months, 45000 mongolian kazaks move to kazakistan for resettlement; looting and stealing of state properties start nationwide in absence the state control. thousands of buildings, properties are exposed to looting; the sino-mongolian trade agreement is signed establishing series of some border sites where locally contracted trade could go;
1992-the new constitution is approved; on june 5th, a plane carrying the first 16 takhi horses brought from ascona-novazoo/ukraine/ on board lands at the ulaanbaatar’s airport; the last horse was seen in 1968 in a gobi-altai desert; a 10 year -old boy dies knocked down bya crowd gathered for food rations in ulaanbaatar; the nalaikh mining stops its manufacturing due to an accident that took a place in its proccession line and stealing and looting its properties start;
1996-on december 31st, nyamdorj nyambuugiin, the famous poet, dies;
1997-the mineral law is adopted. unfortunately, the law soon puts local businesses in a very unfair position;
1998-in the eastern mongolia, it rains for a month; mongolian herders grow up to 33mln animals;
1999-mr. dashbalbar, a great poet and patriot, dies; damdin dariin, the 5-time naadam wrestling champion is honoured as the heroe of labor of mongolia; heavy snow falls cause a zud, the disaster for herders killing millions of animals.
2000- in the parliamentary elections, mprp, the former socialist party wins 72 seats out of total 76. heavy snow falls cause a zud disaster for the 2nd consecutive winter;
2001 in january, mr.otgonbileg, a famous businessman dies in a helicopter crash. heavy snow falls cause another zud disaster for the 3rd consecutive winter;
2003-in december, russia cancels mongolia’s debt to the soviet union.
2006-mongolia celebrates the 800th aniversary of great mongolian state of chingiss khaan; the parliament amends 1997 mineral law;
2007-a helicopter carrying a team of fire fighters crashes in selenge aymag killing 15 men on board. heavy fogs in mountain forest is blamed to cause the disaster; this summer is the most dry one in several last decades.
2008-late march, heavy snow blizzards occur in western and southern mongolia;on feb 26th, avarzad ulemjiin, a famous mongol, the heroe on april 20th, serod batochirin, wins 2008 beijing marathon with 2:14:15; caused by shortages in financial sources from the commercial banks, construction boom slows down ; copper price goes down due to the global downturn; on july 1st, rioters burn and loot the headquarter of mprp, many properties and cultural sites; on agust 14th, at the beijing olympic games, tuvshinbayar naidanii makes history by winning the first-ever olympic gold medal in the men’s -100kg judo tournament. the news of the long-awaited since 1964 olympic gold medal, brings immediately all mongolia’s people to undiscribable joys and celebration rallies of satisfaction throughout the country; on august 24th, badar-uugan enkhbatiin wins 2nd olympic medal for mongolia in the men’s 54kg final of the beijing olympic games. the news sends again the nation in condition of the same emotional celebrations, the people go crazy shouting and singing and joyful into the mornings early hours; mongolia succeeds to grow domestically 50% of the country’s demand in potatoes;
2009-the economic crisis which started from november of last year, continues; in january, a mongolian tv team visits the hazaras in kabul and in bamian;